Sukuk Agreement

Existing literature focuses solely on Sukuk`s contacts and structures, but Sukuk`s pricing is largely ignored. This paper examines Sukuk`s contracts, structures and pricing mechanism. Specifically, this study examines several sukuk instruments, examines existing structures, demonstrates Sukuk price mechanisms and discusses critical issues of any type of sukuk. The paper also discusses possible solutions to the issues discussed in this study. In this way, readers are able to understand the important technical elements of sukuk and distinguish Sukuk from conventional links and appreciate the spirit of Islamic finance. We see in Table 17, which shows Sukuk as a whole from Turkey, 62 percent of Sukuk were spent by the Turkish sovereign. After launching its first sukuk issue in 2012, the sovereign has since become the leading issuer in this sector. Kuveyt Turk Participation Bank took second place with 18 per cent market share and Turkey Finance Participation Bank third with 10 per cent market share. Finally, other banks took fourth place with 10% market share. [8] Salam sukuk: are equivalent quotas issued with the aim of mobilizing salam/mobilize capital so that the goods to be delivered on the Salam base are held by certificate holders. With musharaka sukuk, sukuk owners (investors) own the joint venture, assets or business activities and therefore have the right to share their profits.

In a Musharaka-Sukuk, unlike Sukuk based on Mudaraba, a committee of investor representatives participates in the decision-making process. Musharaka sukuk can be traded on the secondary market. The Financial Times described this as an “ongoing” debate on “form against substance” in Islamic finance, identifying two types of sukuk – the “asset-backed” Sukuk and the more numerous, less severe, supposedly non-compliant with the asset-based. In “asset-backed” sukuk, there is “a real sale between the initiator and the special purpose vehicle (SPV) that does not appeal to the owners of sukuk and sukuk on the initiator.” Asset prices may vary over time. On the other hand, sukuk `do` `based on fortune` give their holders the use of the initiator and, therefore, look more like conventional obligations. [3] The Sukuk al-ijara structure consists of the following operations; On 8 May 2013, Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi passed a law authorizing the government to issue Sukuk, but since May 2013 the rules have not been established and this low point has been replaced by the modification of some new articles on the substance of the capital market and its executive provisions. Starting in 2016, the Egyptian government said it would use “innovative financial instruments to implement government projects,” such as Sukuk. [93] More than half of the world`s Sukuk spent are in Malaysian Ringgit, with the U.S. dollar in second place. [24] Malaysia is one of the few countries to make the valuation of Sukuk and other debt securities mandatory. [97] RAM Rating Services Bhd CEO Foo Su Yin says that the total issuance of Sukuk corporate bonds in 2012 amounted to RM 71.7 billion, while conventional bonds amounted to RM48.3 billion. [97] In 2011, Malaysia was the world`s largest emitter of sukuk, with 69% of global emissions.

[98] [7] Hybrid sukuk: Hybrid Sukuk combines two or more forms of Islamic financing in their structure such as Istisna`a and Ijarah, Murabahah and Ijarah, etc. If the asset that supports a sukuk is valued, then the sukuk can appreciate, while the yield on the loan is exclusively due to its interest rate. As table 13 shows, the share of lease certificates in the interest-free banking sector in Turkey has risen to 13%. The first Takaful[12] Communique No:30186 was published in the Official Journal of Turkey on September 20, 2017. Thus, takaful received an official identity known as participation insurance. The volume of this still very small sector has reached only one per cent of market share.