Risks are increasing because, historically, these agreements only become ambitious over time. In other words, the Paris framework is a starting point, no matter how bad, it is not an end point. And the exit from the agreement protects the United States from future violations of U.S. sovereignty and from any future massive legal liability. Believe me, we have a massive legal responsibility if we continue to do so. On 3 March 1918, Russia signed a treaty with the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria) in the city of Brest-Litovsk, in present-day Belarus (1914-18). With November 11th… Read more The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing). They also reaffirmed their commitment made at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, to create a new global climate treaty by 2015 that would require all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, India and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which was to become the Paris Agreement – was to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris agreement came into force earlier than expected in November 2016. Britain has also signed separate agreements with France and Spain and (temporarily) with the Netherlands.
 In the contract with Spain, the territories of eastern and western Florida were ceded to Spain (excluding a clear northern border, which gave rise to a territorial dispute resolved by the Treaty of Madrid in 1795). Spain also received the island of Menorca; The islands of the Bahamas, Grenada and Montserrat, conquered by the French and The Spaniards, were repatriated to Great Britain. The contract with France was mainly related to the exchange of conquered territories (the only profits from France were the island of Tobago and Senegal in Africa), but also previous contracts guaranteeing fishing rights off Newfoundland. The Dutch possessions in East India, conquered in 1781, were returned to the Netherlands by Great Britain in exchange for commercial privileges in the Dutch East Indies, through a contract concluded only in 1784.  Franklin disclosed the Anglo-American agreement to Vergennes, which opposed the manner in which it was obtained, but was willing to accept the agreement in broader peace negotiations, and agreed to provide the United States with another loan that Franklin had requested.